This document describes the lexicography module of the Lexicon Model for Ontologies (lemon) as a result of the work of the Ontology Lexicon community group (OntoLex). The module is targeted at the representation of dictionaries and any other linguistic resource containing lexicographic data, and addresses structures and annotations commonly found in lexicography. This module operates in combination with the lemon core module, referred to as OntoLex.

The RDF file with the OntoLex lemon lexicography module can be found at http://www.w3.org/ns/lemon/lexicog

There are a number of ways that one may participate in future developments of this report:

Introduction

Background and motivation

The lemon model provides a core vocabulary (OntoLex) to represent linguistic information related to ontology and vocabulary elements. The model follows the principle of semantics by reference in the sense that the semantics of a lexical entry is expressed by reference to an individual, class or property defined in an ontology.

The current version of lemon (as an outcome of the OntoLex group, sometimes referred as OntoLex-lemon in the literature) as well as its previous version (lemon [1]) have been increasingly used in the context of work in dictionaries and lexicographical data to convert existent lexicographic information into the standards and formats of the Semantic Web. Such preliminary experiences comprise monolingual [2], bilingual [3], and multilingual [4] dictionaries, as well as diachronic [5], dialectal [6], and etymological ones [7], among others. The added value of using linked data technologies in lexicography and its implications for the micro and macro structure of dictionaries have been explored as well by several authors [e.g., 8, 9].

After analysing the literature, the proposers of this module perceived a strong need for reaching some agreement that allows for a better and more inter-operable migration of existing dictionaries into linked data [10]. For illustration, the Oxford Global Language ontology [11] has its own notion of dictionary entry materialised in the ogl:Entry class, while in [4] the ad-hoc kd:dictionaryEntry relation was introduced in the conversion of the multilingual Global Series of KDictionaries, i.e, different researchers introduced their own modelling solutions to account for similar notions. Interoperability is a key issue in linked data technologies, thus building a common space in which these concepts can be agreed upon and commonly defined is a logical next step. The OntoLex community is the natural forum to accomplish this for several reasons:

  1. The extended use of lemon to convert language resources (including lexicographic resources) into linked data,
  2. the nature of the lemon model being descriptive but not prescriptive, which facilitates neutrality towards different lexicographic views,
  3. the coming together of the lexicography and the Semantic Web communities, and
  4. the possibility of reusing already available mechanisms in lemon, preventing researchers from "re-inventing the wheel."

Aim and scope

The main goal of this module is to complement the lemon core module, OntoLex, and to overcome its limitations when modelling lexicographic information as linked data in a way that is agnostic to the underlying lexicographic view and minimises information loss.

The scope of the model is two-fold:

  1. Modelling existing lexicographic resources as linked data, to allow their later publication by following Semantic Web standards, and
  2. providing a conceptual / abstract model of language and linguistic objects in lexicography that will allow for building linked data-based lexicographic resources from scratch.
Modelling existing dictionaries as linked data can be done by first extracting the features they have in common and modelling them in a way that is decoupled from specific linguistic views. Although the primary goal might be to model existing resources, the module should remain highly re-usable across dictionaries and useful for new linked data-based lexicographic works developed from scratch (see the notion of linked data-native dictionaries at [12]). Naturally, we assume that many specific ingredients from specific dictionaries and views will still need ad-hoc constructs. Still, having a small set of common entities defined in the module will help to overcome the limitations that have been detected in the experiences of instantiating lemon with lexicographic data, and can greatly promote interoperability.

In terms of applying the module, we propose the following best practice or "rule of thumb" when representing a dictionary as linked data:

  1. As long as the entities in OntoLex and the other lemon modules, together with those of catalogues of linguistic categories (e.g. LexInfo), suffice to represent the information encoded in the lexicographic resource (e.g., lexical entry, part of speech, translation, ...), the OntoLex lexicography module need not be applied.
  2. In the case of lexicographic information that cannot be modelled by using either OntoLex nor any of the other lemon modules (e.g., to denote sense ordering), the OntoLex lexicography module should be used, at the same time avoiding redundancies and keeping additional information to the minimum.
The reason behind this is that this module adds some complexity by providing additional description capabilities to the purely lexical description accounted by OntoLex. If this information is not needed for a specific conversion, i.e, if the lexicographic view is not essential, reusing lemon would allow for keeping the representation simpler but yet sufficient.

Namespaces

This is a list of relevant namespaces that will be used in the rest of this document:

OntoLex lexicography module:


		@prefix lexicog: <http://www.w3.org/ns/lemon/lexicog#> .
		 
		

OntoLex (core) model and other lemon modules:


		@prefix ontolex: <http://www.w3.org/ns/lemon/ontolex#> .
		@prefix vartrans: <http://www.w3.org/ns/lemon/vartrans#> .
		@prefix lime: <http://www.w3.org/ns/lemon/lime#> .
	   

Other models :


		@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
		@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
		@prefix owl: <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
		@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
		@prefix skos: <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos#> .
		@prefix void: <http://rdfs.org/ns/void#> .
		@prefix lexinfo: <http://www.lexinfo.net/ontology/2.0/lexinfo#> .
		@prefix dc: <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/> .
	    
  	   

Lexicography Module (lexicog)

The following diagram depicts the OntoLex lexicography module (lexicog). Boxes represent classes of the model. Arrows with filled heads represent object properties, while arrows with empty heads represent the rdfs:subClassOf relation. Note that the module provides elements to account for structures common in lexicographic resources (shaded in blue) as well as some to capture annotations and additional information describing lexical elements as found in dictionaries (shaded in orange).
ontolex-lexicography-module_v.5.png
The OntoLex lexicography module (lexicog). The upper part accounts for structures common in lexicographic resources and the bottom part describes the lexicon, i.e., the elements describing the lexical information.

Lexicographic Resource

The class lime:Lexicon has been used in the literature as a natural way of modelling a collection of dictionary entries. However, there are certain situations (see [10]) in which there is no one-to-one mapping between the entries in a dictionary, or lexicographic resource in general, and the lexical entries in a lemon lexicon (lime:Lexicon). For instance, some dictionary entries contain information about their translations and synonyms, though the latter might not have their own dictionary entry in the source dictionary. Still, such translations and synonyms can be treated as "first class citizens" in the RDF graph by representing them as lemon lexical entries with ontolex:LexicalEntry. In such situations, there is a disparity between the ensuing lemon lexicon and the original dictionary, as the linked data representation would include entries not encoded in the original resource as dictionary entries.

Thus, the class Lexicographic Resource is intended to represent the original resource, in order to keep track of the collection of lexicographic entries contained in it. This does not replace, but complements, the use of lime:Lexicon, which will include the lexical entries explicitly declared in the resource along with other ones (e.g., synonyms, translations)

Lexicographic Resource (Class)

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/lemon/lexicog#LexicographicResource

A lexicographic resource represents a collection of lexicographic entries (lexicog:Entry) in accord with the lexicographic criteria followed in the development of that resource.

SubClassOf: void:Dataset, dc:language min 1

Entry

The class Entry is introduced to represent the entry as it is encoded in a lexicographic resource, e.g. a dictionary entry, thereby reflecting the arrangement decided upon by the lexicographer (supported by the occurrences of the word or phrase in the corpus used for dictionary compilation). This class is thus intended to be the counterpart of the lemon lexical entry (ontolex:LexicalEntry) in the linked data representation of a dictionary, and fulfills a structural function.

Entry (Class)

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/lemon/lexicog#Entry

An entry is a structural element that represents a lexicographic article or record as it is arranged in a source lexicographic resource. As such, it supports the description of lexical entries or senses according to the lexicographic micro-structure, decided upon during a lexicographic resource compilation process.

SubClassOf: Lexicographic Component

entry

The property entry relates an instance of the class representing the lexicographic resource to the actual entry (or 'record' in the literature). This property is a counterpart of lime:entry, which relates lime:Lexicon to ontolex:LexicalEntry.

entry (Object Property)

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/lemon/lexicog#entry

The property entry relates a lexicog:LexicographicResource to a lexicog:Entry.

Domain: LexicographicResource

Range: Entry

A simple example of an entry belonging to a lexicographic resource in English is given below. In this example, a lexicographic record for the word animal groups (under the same dictionary entry) descriptions for the lexical entries animal (n.), and animal (adj.), which both share phonetic representation and etymology. The example has been extracted from the American Heritage Dictionary [16]:

an·i·mal

n.

1. Any of numerous multicellular eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Metazoa (or Animalia) [...]

2. An animal organism other than a human, especially a mammal.

[...]

adj.

1. Relating to, characteristic of, or derived from an animal or animals, especially when not human: animal cells; animal welfare.

2. Relating to the physical as distinct from the rational or spiritual nature of people: animal instincts and desires.

In this example, a dictionary provides one single dictionary entry for the word animal, comprising its noun and adjective definitions under one same structure. This is not compliant with the definition of ontolex:LexicalEntry, which requires a single part of speech. Therefore, a lime:Lexicon accounting for the lexical information in this dictionary will contain two lexical entries, one per part of speech. On the other hand, an instance of the Lexicographic Resource class will gather entities as they were presented in the original dictionary in order to keep track of the original representation. In this simplified example, animal will be the only entry of the lexicographic resource:


     # LEXICOGRAPHIC RESOURCE

     :myDictionary a lexicog:LexicographicResource ;
	    dc:language "en" ;
	    lexicog:entry :animal_entry .

     :animal_entry a lexicog:Entry .

     # LEXICON

     :myLexicon a lime:Lexicon;
	    lime:language "en" ;
	    lime:entry  :animal_n, :animal_adj .

     :animal_n a ontolex:LexicalEntry .
     :animal_adj a ontolex:LexicalEntry .
    

Lexicographic Component

A lexicographic component is a structural element in the lexicographic resource that represents either a lexicographic record or any other sub-structure to refer to senses, sense groups, or nested entries. Lexicographic components do not necessarily describe lexical data but can often fulfill a grouping function to gather other components that do. Entry is a particular subclass of Lexicographic Component used to represent the main "entry point" in the dictionary, i.e., the headword or the root of the lexicographic record. The lexicographic components can describe lexical senses (ontolex:LexicalSense) or lexical entries (ontolex:LexicalEntry), depending on the arrangement in the original resource. Components can in turn be arranged in a specific order and/or hierarchy or just be declared to be part of an entry.

Lexicographic Component (Class)

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/lemon/lexicog#LexicographicComponent

A lexicographic component is a structural element that represents the (sub-)structures of lexicographic articles providing information about entries, senses or sub-entries. If desired, lexicographic components can be arranged in a specific order and/or hierarchy.

SubClassOf: owl:Thing

In our previous example (animal) two different ontolex:LexicalEntries are grouped together in the same lexicographic record (entry). If we want to capture this in our RDF representation, we have to start by stating that the single entry has two lexicographic components. In this example, we indicate that the components belong to the entry by simply using the RDF native mechanisms for containers, in particular the rdfs:member property:


    # LEXICOGRAPHIC RESOURCE

    :myDictionary a lexicog:LexicographicResource;
       dc:language "en" ;
       lexicog:entry :animal_entry .

    :animal_entry a lexicog:Entry ;
       rdfs:member :animal_n_comp, :animal_adj_comp .

    :animal_n_comp a lexicog:LexicographicComponent .
    :animal_adj_comp a lexicog:LexicographicComponent .


    # LEXICON

    :myLexicon a lime:Lexicon;
       lime:language "en" ;
       lime:entry :animal_n, :animal_adj .

    :animal_n a ontolex:LexicalEntry .
    :animal_adj a ontolex:LexicalEntry .
     

describes

Since lexicog:LexicographicComponents fulfill a structural function to reflect the arrangement of the descriptions provided in a lexicographic resource (order, hierarchy, grouping, etc.), they do not encode lexical content themselves. This is usually accounted for by OntoLex elements, which are described by the components. This is grounded on the idea that a lexicographic resource describes the lexicon of a language (set of languages, dialect, field of study, etc.) following different criteria, e.g. the intended use of the resource, lexicographic tradition, etc. which can affect the description of the lexical content, leading to, for instance, two different resources describing the same lexicon differently. However, in theory, a component could describe any information provided in the resource, e.g. etymology, so the range of the property is not limited to current lemon elements. The property lexicog:describes allows us to link lexicog:LexicographicComponents to the Ontolex core elements that capture lexical data:

Describes (Object Property)

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/lemon/lexicog#describes

The property describes relates a lexicographic component to an element that represents the actual information provided by that component in the lexicographic resource. In most cases, this information will be lexical, and hence the object of the property will be an instance of ontolex:LexicalEntry or ontolex:LexicalSense.

Domain: LexicographicComponent

Range: owl:Thing

Following our example, we can use the describes property to put in relation the two components belonging to the lexicographic resource with the lexical entries that they describe:


    # LEXICOGRAPHIC RESOURCE

    :myDictionary a lexicog:LexicographicResource;
       dc:language "en" ;
       lexicog:entry :animal_entry .

    :animal_entry a lexicog:Entry ;
       rdfs:member :animal_n_comp, :animal_adj_comp .

    :animal_n_comp a lexicog:LexicographicComponent .
    :animal_adj_comp a lexicog:LexicographicComponent .

    # LEXICON

    :myLexicon a lime:Lexicon;
       lime:language "en" ;
       lime:entry :animal_n, :animal_adj .

    :animal_n a ontolex:LexicalEntry .
    :animal_adj a ontolex:LexicalEntry .

    # LEXICOGRAPHIC RESOURCE - LEXICON RELATIONS

    :animal_n_comp lexicog:describes :animal_n .
    :animal_adj_comp lexicog:describes :animal_adj .
    

Note that this only states that there is a structure (entry) which contains sub-structures (components) which describe lexical elements, in this case, lexical entries. In case that this arrangement is not present in the dictionary or that there is no need to represent it in RDF (e.g., animal (adj.) and animal (n.) appear in different records) then the instantiation of lexicog:Entry without sub-components would suffice to keep track of the collection of lexicographic entries contained in the resource.

The following code extends the previous example by adding more subcomponents that describe the four senses that can be found in the original lexicographic record. In this example we capture the sense order by using the RDF native mechanisms for containers, in particular rdfs:ContainerMembershipProperty (rdf:_1, rdf:_2, ...).


    # LEXICOGRAPHIC RESOURCE

    :myDictionary a lexicog:LexicographicResource;
       dc:language "en" ;
       lexicog:entry :animal_entry .

    :animal_entry a lexicog:Entry ;
       rdfs:member :animal_n_comp, :animal_adj_comp .

    :animal_n_comp
	   rdf:_1 :animal_n_sense_1_comp ;
	   rdf:_2 :animal_n_sense_2_comp .

    :animal_adj_comp
       rdf:_1 :animal_adj_sense_1_comp ;
       rdf:_2 :animal_adj_sense_2_comp .

    :animal_n_comp a lexicog:LexicographicComponent .
    :animal_adj_comp a lexicog:LexicographicComponent .
    :animal_n_sense_1_comp a lexicog:LexicographicComponent .
    :animal_n_sense_2_comp a lexicog:LexicographicComponent .
    :animal_adj_sense_1_comp a lexicog:LexicographicComponent .
    :animal_adj_sense_2_comp a lexicog:LexicographicComponent .

    # LEXICON

    :myLexicon a lime:Lexicon;
       lime:language "en" ;
       lime:entry :animal_n, :animal_adj .

    :animal_n a ontolex:LexicalEntry .
    :animal_adj a ontolex:LexicalEntry .

    :animal_n_sense_1 a ontolex:LexicalSense .
    :animal_n_sense_2 a ontolex:LexicalSense .
    :animal_adj_sense_1 a ontolex:LexicalSense .
    :animal_adj_sense_2 a ontolex:LexicalSense .

    # LEXICOGRAPHIC RESOURCE - LEXICON RELATIONS

    :animal_n_comp lexicog:describes :animal_n .
    :animal_adj_comp lexicog:describes :animal_adj .

    :animal_n_sense_1_comp lexicog:describes :animal_n_sense_1 .
    :animal_n_sense_2_comp lexicog:describes :animal_n_sense_2 .
    :animal_adj_sense_1_comp lexicog:describes :animal_adj_sense_1 .
    :animal_adj_sense_2_comp lexicog:describes :animal_adj_sense_2 .
    
In our running example, we have represented so far the structural components of the lexical resource and how they are related to the elements of the lexicon. In order to provide a complete example, we add the lexical information represented in Ontolex (thus, not specific of the lexicog module) in the following RDF code:


    # LEXICOGRAPHIC RESOURCE

    :myDictionary a lexicog:LexicographicResource;
       dc:language "en" ;
       lexicog:entry :animal_entry .

    :animal_entry a lexicog:Entry ;
       rdfs:member :animal_n_comp, :animal_adj_comp .

    :animal_n_comp
	   rdf:_1 :animal_n_sense_1_comp ;
	   rdf:_2 :animal_n_sense_2_comp .

    :animal_adj_comp
       rdf:_1 :animal_adj_sense_1_comp ;
       rdf:_2 :animal_adj_sense_2_comp .

    :animal_n_comp a lexicog:LexicographicComponent .
    :animal_adj_comp a lexicog:LexicographicComponent .
    :animal_n_sense_1_comp a lexicog:LexicographicComponent .
    :animal_n_sense_2_comp a lexicog:LexicographicComponent .
    :animal_adj_sense_1_comp a lexicog:LexicographicComponent .
    :animal_adj_sense_2_comp a lexicog:LexicographicComponent .

    # LEXICON (lexical entries and lexical senses)

    :myLexicon a lime:Lexicon;
       lime:language "en" ;
       lime:entry :animal_n, :animal_adj .

    :animal_n a ontolex:LexicalEntry .
    :animal_adj a ontolex:LexicalEntry .

    :animal_n_sense_1 a ontolex:LexicalSense .
    :animal_n_sense_2 a ontolex:LexicalSense .
    :animal_adj_sense_1 a ontolex:LexicalSense .
    :animal_adj_sense_2 a ontolex:LexicalSense .

    # LEXICON (forms and lexical concepts)

    :animal_form a ontolex:Form ;
       ontolex:writtenRep "animal"@en .

    :animal_n ontolex:lexicalForm :animal_form ;
        lexinfo:partOfSpeech lexinfo:noun ;
        ontolex:sense :animal_n_sense_1 ;
        ontolex:sense :animal_n_sense_2 .

    :animal_adj ontolex:lexicalForm :animal_form ;
        lexinfo:partOfSpeech lexinfo:adjective ;
        ontolex:sense :animal_adj_sense_1 ;
        ontolex:sense :animal_adj_sense_2 .

    :animal_n_1_concept  a ontolex:LexicalConcept ;
       skos:definition "Any of numerous multicellular eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Metazoa (or Animalia)"@en .

    :animal_n_2_concept  a ontolex:LexicalConcept;
       skos:definition "An animal organism other than a human, especially a mammal."@en .

    :animal_adj_1_concept  a ontolex:LexicalConcept ;
       skos:definition "Relating to, characteristic of, or derived from an animal or animals, especially when not human: animal cells; animal welfare."@en .

    :animal_adj_2_concept  a ontolex:LexicalConcept;
       skos:definition "Relating to the physical as distinct from the rational or spiritual nature of people: animal instincts and desires."@en .

    :animal_n_sense_1 ontolex:isLexicalizedSenseOf :animal_n_1_concept .
    :animal_n_sense_2 ontolex:isLexicalizedSenseOf :animal_n_2_concept .
    :animal_adj_sense_1 ontolex:isLexicalizedSenseOf :animal_adj_1_concept .
    :animal_adj_sense_2 ontolex:isLexicalizedSenseOf :animal_adj_2_concept .

    # LEXICOGRAPHIC RESOURCE - LEXICON RELATIONS

    :animal_n_comp lexicog:describes :animal_n .
    :animal_adj_comp lexicog:describes :animal_adj .

    :animal_n_sense_1_comp lexicog:describes :animal_n_sense_1 .
    :animal_n_sense_2_comp lexicog:describes :animal_n_sense_2 .
    :animal_adj_sense_1_comp lexicog:describes :animal_adj_sense_1 .
    :animal_adj_sense_2_comp lexicog:describes :animal_adj_sense_2 .
    

subComponent

There are cases in which lexicographic components are arranged in a particular hierarchy: a dictionary entry may include a list of senses (even with sub-senses) or sub-entries. This can be expressed by means of the RDF native mechanisms for containers. In the case that it is necessary to explicitly reflect that this is a hierarchical relation between lexicographic components, the lexicog:subComponent property can be used instead of, or in addition to, such RDF container mechanisms.

subComponent (Object Property)

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/lemon/lexicog#subComponent

The property subComponent encodes a hierarchical relation between two lexicographic components

Domain: Lexicographic Component

Range: Lexicographic Component

SubPropertyOf: rdfs:member

As an example, let us re-write Example 2 to describe that the only entry in our lexical resource has two components, as follows:


    # LEXICOGRAPHIC RESOURCE

    :myDictionary a lexicog:LexicographicResource ;
       dc:language "en" ;
       lexicog:entry :animal_entry .

    :animal_entry a lexicog:Entry ;
       lexicog:subComponent :animal_n_comp ;
       lexicog:subComponent :animal_adj_comp .

    :animal_n_comp a lexicog:LexicographicComponent .
    :animal_adj_comp a lexicog:LexicographicComponent .

    # LEXICON

    :myLexicon a lime:Lexicon;
       lime:language "en" ;
       lime:entry :animal_n, :animal_adj .

    :animal_n a ontolex:LexicalEntry .
    :animal_adj a ontolex:LexicalEntry .
  

FormRestriction

There are numerous cases in which a lexicographic record specifies the grammatical features the lemma shows when used in some of its senses. For example, in English, the lemmas good, manner, air or wood have senses which are usually (or only) attested when the word is used in plural, often indicated with the lemma in plural form, as the following entry from Oxford English Living Dictionaries Online [17], or with a usage note in the dictionary entry:
air

n. [...]

2. An impression of a quality or manner given by someone or something. [...]

2.1 (airs) An annoyingly affected and condescending manner.

[...]

While there are plural nouns which only occur in plural form (e.g. amends, scissors), the so-called pluralia tantum, and they are usually defined in their own dictionary entry, there is also some variance across lexicographic resources in cases in which the noun also occurs in singular form. For instance, see glasses in Oxford Living Dictionaries, in an entry separate from glass [18], as opposed to its treatment as a sub-sense of a sense of the lemma glass in Merriam Webster Dictionary, with the annotation "glasses plural" [19].

There are dictionaries which provide grammatical annotations indicating varying gender in the senses of the same dictionary entry. For example, in Spanish, the lemma policía can be used in feminine or masculine if denoting a police officer, but only in feminine when denoting the police force or administration. Depending on the criteria followed for headword selection during the compilation of the resource, e.g. etymology, in these cases we may find two independent entries or one single entry with senses having different gender restrictions.

The lexicog:FormRestriction class is intended to provide a way to specify the set of grammatical features of a lexical entry when used in a specific ontolex:LexicalSense in cases in which it does not allow for all of those reflected in the lexical forms provided. Any external catalogue can be used for this purpose. For example, in Spanish, ratón 'mouse', in its meaning of "animal", has a masculine and a feminine form. In its meaning of computer device, small rock or biceps (in Costa Rica), it only occurs as masculine, and therefore these senses would receive a FormRestriction.

FormRestriction (class)

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/lemon/lexicog#FormRestriction

There are cases in which a specific ontolex:LexicalSense does not allow for all the available ontolex:Form(s) of the ontolex:LexicalEntry. In those cases, the class FormRestriction represents (a set of) grammatical features of the ontolex:Form(s) in which that sense occurs. The sense does not occur in forms whose features do not match with those of such a set.

SubClassOf: owl:Thing

restrictedTo

The lexicog:restrictedTo allows us to relate an ontolex:LexicalSense to its lexicog:FormRestriction, if any:

restrictedTo (Object Property)

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/lemon/lexicog#restrictedTo

The property restrictedTo relates a LexicalSense to a FormRestriction when a lexicographic resource provides information about the specific morphological features of the ontolex:Form in that sense.

Domain: LexicalSense

Range: FormRestriction

The following example is the RDF representation of the above mentioned sense of "air". For the sake of simplicity, we do not account for sense hierarchy in this example (see section 2.5), and hence we do not instantiate lexicog:LexicographicComponents here.


    :air_n a ontolex:LexicalEntry ;
       ontolex:sense :air_n_sense_2, :air_n_sense_2_1 ;
       ontolex:canonicalForm :air_n_form ;
       ontolex:otherForm :airs_n_form .

    :air_n_form a ontolex:Form ;
       ontolex:writtenRep "air"@en ;
       lexinfo:number lexinfo:singular .

    :airs_n_form a ontolex:Form ;
       ontolex:writtenRep "airs"@en ;
       lexinfo:number lexinfo:plural .

    :air_n_sense_2 a ontolex:LexicalSense ;
       ontolex:isLexicalizedSenseOf :air_n_sense_2_lc .

    :air_n_sense_2_1 a ontolex:LexicalSense ;
       ontolex:isLexicalizedSenseOf :air_n_sense_2_1_lc ;
       lexicog:restrictedTo :air_n_formRes .

    :air_n_formRes a lexicog:FormRestriction ;
       lexinfo:number lexinfo:plural .

    :air_n_sense_2_lc a ontolex:LexicalConcept ;
       skos:definition "An impression of a quality or manner given by someone or something"@en .

    :air_n_sense_2_1_lc a ontolex:LexicalConcept ;
       skos:definition "An annoyingly affected and condescending manner"@en .
  

UsageExample

There are occasions in which lexicographic records also include an example of use of an entry in each of its senses. While these examples can be captured as skos:examples of ontolex:LexicalConcept, sometimes there is more information about the example beyond the text itself. The class lexicog:UsageExample is intended to represent a textual example of the usage of a sense in a given lexicographic record. A usage example can group several string values, in which case they will encode the same meaning. Thus, if such values are expressed in different languages, they can be interpreted as translations. Usage examples can be linked to any other relevant information related to them, from provenance to usage notes:

UsageExample (class)

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/lemon/lexicog#UsageExample

The class UsageExample represents a textual example of the usage of a sense in a given lexicographic record. A usage example can group several string values, in which case they will encode the same meaning. Thus, if such values are expressed in different languages, they can be interpreted as translations.

SubClassOf: rdf:value min 1 xsd:string, owl:Thing

usageExample

In those cases in which it is necessary to instantiate a lexicog:UsageExample because there is further information about an example beyond the text itself (otherwise, skos:example would suffice), the lexicog:usageExample property allows us to link an ontolex:LexicalSense to a lexicog:UsageExample element.

usageExample (Object Property)

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/lemon/lexicog#usageExample

The property usageExample relates an ontolex:LexicalSense with a lexicog:UsageExample

Domain: LexicalSense

Range: UsageExample

For instance, a bilingual dictionary such as the English-Spanish WordReference Dictionary [20] can include, for a sense, a usage example and a translation of the usage example in the target language:

monastery n (monk's residence) [English] monasterio nm [Spanish]

We visited a Buddhist monastery deep in a jungle.

Visitamos un monasterio budista en medio de la selva.

We fist show how to represent the monolingual information only (English).


    # Entries
    :monastery_n_en a ontolex:LexicalEntry ;
       ontolex:sense :monastery_n_en_sense .

    # Senses
    :monastery_n_en_sense a ontolex:LexicalSense ;
       ontolex:isLexicalizedSenseOf :monastery_n_en_sense_concept ;
       lexicog:usageExample :monastery_n_en_sense_ex .

    # Concepts
    :monastery_n_en_sense_concept a ontolex:LexicalConcept ;
      skos:definition "monk's residence"@en .

    # Examples
    :monastery_n_en_sense_ex a lexicog:UsageExample;
       rdf:value "We visited a Buddhist monastery deep in a jungle."@en.
  
Then, we show the complete example where a translation is involved and the same usage example has its own values both in English and Spanish. For simplicity we omit here some container entities such as lexicog:LexicographicResource, lime:Lexicon and vartrans:TranslationSet.


    # Entries
    :monastery_n_en a ontolex:LexicalEntry ;
       ontolex:sense :monastery_n_en_sense .
    :monasterio_n_es a ontolex:LexicalEntry ;
       ontolex:sense :monasterio_n_es_sense .

    # Senses
    :monastery_n_en_sense a ontolex:LexicalSense ;
       ontolex:isLexicalizedSenseOf :monastery_n_en_sense_concept ;
       lexicog:usageExample :monastery_n_en_sense_ex .

    :monasterio_n_es_sense a ontolex:LexicalSense ;
       ontolex:isLexicalizedSenseOf :monastery_n_en_sense_concept .

    # Concepts
    :monastery_n_en_sense_concept a ontolex:LexicalConcept ;
      skos:definition "monk's residence"@en .

    # Translations
    :monastery_n_en_sense-monasterio_n_es_sense-tr a vartrans:Translation ;
       vartrans:source :monastery_n_en_sense ;
       vartrans:target :monasterio_n_es_sense-tr .

    # Examples
    :monastery_n_en_sense_ex a lexicog:UsageExample;
       rdf:value "We visited a Buddhist monastery deep in a jungle."@en;
       rdf:value "Visitamos un monasterio budista en medio de la selva."@es.
  

Acknowledgements

This work would not have been possible without the constant and major input from everyone in the OntoLex community attending the bi-weekly Lexicography module teleconferences and providing data for discussion. We are especially thankful to Christian Chiarcos and Thierry Declerck for their useful feedback and insightful remarks.

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